|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 46-47
Noble prize in physiology or medicine 2017
Department of Pharmacology, MGIMS, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||3-Apr-2018|
Dr. O P Gupta
Department of Pharmacology, MGIMS, Sewagram, Wardha, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Gupta O P. Noble prize in physiology or medicine 2017. J Mahatma Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2018;23:46-7
All multicellular organisms possess circadian clocks, and human versions of the genes that comprise their clocks have been implicated in sleeping disorders and other medical conditions. The three researchers isolated and characterized a gene in fruit flies, period, that encodes a protein that builds up each night, only to be broken down the following day. In subsequent work, the trio, as well as other scientists, unpicked the molecular regulation of the period gene (and the protein that it encodes, called PER) and identified additional components of the circadian clock.
Jeffrey C. HallBorn: 1945, New York, NY, USA
Michael RosbashBorn: 1944, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Michael W. YoungBorn: 1949, Miami, Fl,USA
| Jeffery C Hall|| |
Jaffery C Hall is an American geneticist and chronobiologist. He is Professor Emeritus of Biology at Brandeis University, Maine. Through his research on the neurology and behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, Hall uncovered essential mechanisms of biological clocks and shed light on the foundations for sexual differentiation in the nervous system.
For his passion in biology, Hall began working with Philip Ives. In 1990, in collaboration with Michael Rosbash and Paul Hardin, Hall discovered that the Period protein (PER) played a role in suppressing its own transcription. While the exact role of PER was unknown, they were able to develop a negative transcription–translation feedback-loop model that serves as a central mechanism of the circadian clock in Drosophila. After a certain concentration of PER, the expression of per gene decreased, causing PER levels to decrease, that allows per to be expressed again. In 2003, he found that the pigment-dispersing factor protein helps control the circadian rhythms, Hall discovered how the Drosophila PER and timeless tim circadian genes were regulated.
| Michael Rosbash|| |
Rosbash, an American geneticist and chronobiologist, is a professor at Brandeis University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Rosbash's research group cloned the Drosophila period gene in 1984 and proposed the transcription–translation negative feedback loop for circadian clocks in 1990. In 1998, they discovered the cycle gene, clock gene, and cryptochrome photoreceptor in Drosophila.
Rosbash, using D. melanogaster collaborated with coworker Jeffrey Hall and investigated the genetic influences on circadian rhythms of the internal biological clock. In May 1998, Rosbash et al. found a homolog for mammalian clock that performed the same function of activating the transcription of per and tim that they proceeded to call dclock in November 1998, Rosbash et al. discovered the cry b Drosophila mutant, which leads to the conclusion that cryptochrome protein is involved in circadian photoreception
In 1998, Rosbash et al. discovered the novel clock gene cycle, a homolog of the mammalian Bmal1 gene. He is the recipient of several awards (Willey Prize, 2013, Lousia Cross Horwitz Prize, 2011, etc.) for his pioneering scientific discoveries besides the Noble one.
| Michael W Young|| |
Michael Young, an American biologist and geneticist, dedicated over three decades to research studying genetically controlled patterns of sleep and wakefulness within D. melanogaster at Rockefeller University, he made a significant contributions in the field of chronobiology by identifying key genes associated with regulation of the internal clock responsible for circadian rhythms. He elucidated the function of the period (per) gene, which is necessary for the fly to exhibit normal sleep cycles. The timeless and doubletime genes, which makes proteins that are also necessary for circadian rhythm were discovered in his laboratory.
Amita Sehgal, Jeff Price, Bernice Man helped Young use forward genetics to screen for additional mutations that altered fly rhythms and found strong functional connections between tim and per. Tim mutants interfered with per mRNA cycling. In 1998, Jeff Price from the Young lab discovered a kinase called doubletime that phosphorylates PER. When PER and TIM are bound, doubletime does not seem to be able to phosphorylate PER, allowing it to accumulate Young's discovery of doubletime mutants in 1998 was soon followed by the 2001 discovery of a form of Familial Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome in humans, Young received number of awards before getting the prestigious Noble Prize.
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